|straight single quote
|straight double quote
|opening single quote
|option + ]
|closing single quote
|option + shift + ]
|opening double quote
|option + [
|closing double quote
|option + shift + [
Straight quotes are a typewriter habit. In traditional printing, all quotation marks were curly. But typewriter character sets were limited by mechanical constraints and physical space. By replacing the curly opening and closing quotes with ambidextrous straight quotes, two slots became available for other characters.
Word processors are not limited in this way. You can always get curly quotes. Compared to straight quotes, curly quotes are more legible on the page and match the other characters better. Therefore, straight quotes should never, ever appear in your documents.
Fortunately, avoiding straight quotes is easy: use your word processor’s smart-quote feature, which will substitute curly quotes automatically. Smart quotes are typically turned on by default.
Smart-quote substitution has been built into word processors for nearly 30 years. That’s why straight quotes are one of the most grievous and inept typographic errors.
When you paste or import text with straight quotes in it, your word processor may not always convert the straight quotes properly. Fix them.
Use the search-and-replace function to search for all instances of the straight single quote (
') and replace it with the same character—a straight single quote ( ').
Use the search-and-replace function to search for all instances of the straight double quote (
") and replace it with the same character—a straight double quote ( ").
Before you say
HTML & CSS have no automatic facility for converting straight quotes to curly. But inserting these characters using HTML escape codes is dreary.
Another option is to use the little-known
q tag, which automatically appends curly quotes to the enclosed elements. So
<q>Hello</q> renders as
Hello. Two caveats. First, a parent element (like
html) must have a
lang attribute (like
lang="en") so the
q tag knows what kind of curly quotes to use. Second, this change in markup removes the quote marks from the character stream, and doesn’t help with apostrophes, so it may be a long drive for a short day at the beach.
Straight quotes are acceptable in email. It’s hard to see the difference between straight and curly quotes on screen at small sizes. And if you’re typing with thumbs on a smartphone, it can be irrationally difficult to insert them.
Some older digital documents are stored with double quotes made of two single quotes (
) or two grave accents ( ' ' ``). (The grave accent, also sometimes called a backtick, is that character above the tab key you’ve never used.) These can be fixed by adapting the search-and-replace technique described above.
Don’t use quotation marks for emphasis. Use bold or italic.
Quotation marks are an area of vast typographic diversity among other languages—both the glyphs used and how they’re spaced. Now you know why quote-curling algorithms have to be smart.
Confidential to computer scientists and documentation writers: straight quotes and backticks in software code should never be converted to curly quotes. Those marks are, of course, part of the code syntax and must be reproduced literally. In particular, though fans of LaTeX have often written me to trumpet its typesetting superiority, I’ve never seen any LaTeX-created documentation that’s gotten this right.