Palatino is the work of designer Hermann Zapf, who is a calligrapher by training. Many of his fonts reflect this influence. But the Palatino system font is a harsh representation of Zapf’s original design. Palatino Nova is Zapf’s own reworking of Palatino that restores its original fluid subtlety. Bembo Book is a revision of the famous 1929 Monotype face, which was itself based on Italian Renaissance typography. Despite the name, so was Iowan Old Style, but it’s a looser interpretation of that model. The lovely Verdigris also draws on these influences.
These alternatives apply equally to Book Antiqua, which was created as a Palatino clone for Microsoft Windows. Book Antiqua has caused its share of controversy over the years—Zapf himself considered it an unethical pillaging of his work. But in recent times, the alleged pillager (Monotype) acquired the alleged pillagee (Linotype), extinguishing the beef.